2 December 2023 ## Introduction

The researcher and the data analysts are utilising discrimination tests to conduct in-depth critical research, by spss data analysis and critical interpretation. Discrimination test refers to the specific technique mainly applied in the sensory analysis, to determine whether there is a detectable difference among the two or more products or not in the dataset. The test users are proficient in analysing the results depending on the data value. The professionals with a degree of training are proficient in determining the complexity of the test to discriminate from one product to another through one of a variety of experimental designs. In this regard, the discrimination test is effective in determining the differences and significantly points out one product, which is different from others.

## Statistical Techniques for Discrimination Testing in Data Analysis

In statistical programming, the SPSS help is utilised for conducting discrimination tests to identify the different variables in the data set. For a wide range of social research and studies, the researchers or the data analysts are utilising the discrimination test to manage the variables. In this regard, ANOVA and MANOVA are effective statistical measures, utilised by a wide number of researchers and data analysts to manage the statistical analysis and identify the different variables in the data set. In this context, ANOVA stands for analysis of variance which considers one dependent and another independent variable for better analysis of the variance. On the other hand, MANOVA is utilised for analysing the multiple independent variables having their crucial impacts on the dependent variable in the data set. These are effective statistical measurements to compare and contrast the alternatives in different independent variable sets. Hereby, ANOVA and MANOVA can also be utilised for comparing and discriminating the variables from one another.

From the perspective of statistical principle, the discrimination test is associated with the practice of rejecting the null hypothesis in the research and it means that there is no detectable difference between two or more products. For the discrimination test, it is hereby necessary to reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis, to clarify that there are significant differences that can be detected and recorded through the statistical analysis. The probability value is given by the statistical test and depending on the test result; the researchers or the data analysts are going to accept or reject the alternative hypothesis and draw the conclusion of the research. Mostly, the binomial, chi-square and t-tests are utilised by a wide range of researchers or statistical data analysts for conducting discrimination tests and identifying significant differences between the variables in the data set. discrimination testing is hereby a technique employed in the sensory analysis to determine the detectable difference among the variables, and hence, the t-test as well as the chi-square test, ANOVA and MANOVA can be utilised for performing appropriate discrimination tests to conclude. The discrimination test is significant in the research and for example, it is utilised mostly in the food industry, where the discrimination test analysis is based on the signal detection theory or SDT.

## Types of Discrimination Tests in Research Analysis

There are different types of discrimination tests in research, which includes triangle test, duo trio test, two out of five tests and 2 AFC tests. The triangle test in discrimination analysis is related to having three samples in the data set, which are represented by each assessor in different orders, and on the other hand the duo trio test in discrimination statistics is related to assessors test with a reference product. Two out of five tests refer to the situation, where five samples are presented to the assessors to test them and consider the two factors for in-depth critical analysis. The 2 AFC test is when two different products are presented to each of the assessors. Paired comparisons are another way to conduct a discrimination test, where the researchers represent two products to the assessors and ask the two states which product fulfils certain conditions.

The advantage of using a paired comparison is that the minimum number of samples required as well as it is the most straightforward approach when the question is related to which sample is more significant and different from others. on the other hand, the trio analysis in discrimination testing is also utilised widely and the advances are quick to set up the execute as well is no need to have prior knowledge of the nature of differences, the triangle test is also effective in a discrimination test were three products are represented, two of the products are identical to each other and the other one is a difference, the assessors try to focus on odd one out for discriminating the products in the data set. The triangle is another way to conduct a discrimination test, where the products are mainly represented, where one product is different and the other two products are identical. The advantages of this statistical method are in utilising discrimination tests to execute the gathered data, and it has greater power as compared to the paired comparison and duo trio statistical methods.

## Conclusion

It deals with measurement of the small sensory differences between the samples required for the various food business objectives, which includes formulation, cost reduction, product development and differentiation as well as quality control. The functions of the discrimination test include difference testing, similarity testing and preference testing, where the influence of the independent variables along with the differences in the data variables can be detected through this discrimination test in the research.